Plants that contain cannabinoids

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Formula Swiss AG

Plants that contain cannabinoids

A cannabinoid is a term which is used a lot in the cannabis industry, but did you know that Mother Nature offers some other types of cannabinoids as well?

These types include:

  • Phytocannabinoids – these are the cannabinoids produced by plants.
  • Endocannabinoids – these cannabinoids are produced in the body of humans and animals.
Who created the name Endocannabinoid. 
The answer to that question started to unfold in 1992, when the first endocannabinoid was discovered. Anandamide was the first, naturally occurring endogenous cannabinoid, or endocannabinoid. It was found by Raphael Mechoulamas well as NIMH researchers William Devane and Dr. Lumir Hanus.
  • Synthetic Cannabinoids – these cannabinoids are produced in laboratories.

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James David Adams Jr.

Expert in medicinal plants, human drug metabolism, herbal remedies, antioxidants and drugs for the treatment of stroke.

I am a professor in the University of Southern California School of Pharmacy. I have lived in California a long time and remember the Haight-Ashbury Summer of Love. While in graduate school, I worked with professor Alexander Shulgin, the father of designer drugs, who taught me the chemistry of medicinal plants. Afterward, while a professor at USC, I learned Chumash healing from a Native American Chumash healer for 14 years from 1998 until 2012. She taught me how to make medicines from Californian plants, but not marijuana, which is not native to the U.S. Currently, I am teaching a course in medical marijuana to pharmacy students.

Chumash healing

The Chumash resided between the Santa Ynez Mountains and the California coasts where rivers and tributaries abound. Inside and around the modern-day Santa Barbara region, the Chumash lived with a bounty of resources. The tribe lived in an area of three environments: the interior, the coast, and the Northern Channel Islands.[7] These provided a diverse array of materials to support the Chumash lifestyle.

Associate Professor of Pharmacology

USC School of Pharmacy

Central Asia: Cannabis Culture Through the Ages

The Early Evolution of the Cannabis Plant

It is postulated that the common ancestor of the modern varieties of cannabis we know now originated in the steppes of Central Asia in one of two places: A) around the Irtysh River that flows westward from Mongolia into the Siberian lowlands south of Lake Baikal, in the Taklamakan desert north of Tibet, or B) growing wild in abundance in the foothills of the Altai Mountains, around the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, in the Hindu Kush mountain range, and in the southern foothills of the Himalayas.

Marijuana, originally from the Altai Mountains in Central and East Asia, contains at least 85 cannabinoids and 27 terpenes, fragrant oils that are produced by many herbs and flowers that may be active, drug-like compounds. THC mimics a naturally occurring neurotransmitter called anandamide that works as a signaling molecule in the brain. Anandamide attaches to proteins in the brain called cannabinoid receptors, which then send signals related to pleasure, memory, thinking, perception and coordination, to name a few. THC works by hijacking these natural cannabinoid receptors, triggering a profound high.

THC is the cannabinoid everyone wants in order to get high. It is produced from THC acid – which constitutes up to 25 percent of the plant’s dry weight – by smoking or baking any part of the marijuana plant.

Myrcene is the most abundant monoterpenoid, a type or terpene, in marijuana. It can relax muscles. Other terpenes such as pinene, linalool, limonene and the sesquiterpene, beta-caryophyllene are pain relievers, especially when applied directly to the skin as a liniment. Some of these terpenes may add to the high when marijuana is smoked.

Tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid, another cannabinoid, can constitute up to 10 percent of the dry weight.

marijuana hyperemesis syndrome

As recreational use has become more widespread, marijuana hyperemesis syndrome is becoming more of a problem in our society. Some people vomit uncontrollably after smoking marijuana regularly. It can be treated by rubbing a cream made from capsaicin, from chili peppers, on the abdomen. Capsaicin cream is available in pharmacies.

Capsaicin cream (rub it on the abdomen
You may have heard of capsaicin, the active ingredient in chili peppers. When applied topically in the form of a cream, ointment, gel, lotion, or transdermal skin patch, capsaicin is thought to provide pain relief by temporarily changing the way your body processes pain.


Researchers have also shown that anxiety can be effectively treated with strains that have more cannabidiol and linalool. It may be best to rub a cannabidiol balm or lotion on your cheeks to relieve anxiety.

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Linalool: The Terpene You Need to Know About

 As it happens, our sense of smell is linked to the brain’s memory and emotion centers, which means terpenes have the capacity to hold powerful influence over our greater psyche.

Alzheimer’s Disease

A further study published in 2016 suggests that linalool could be used as a possible treatment for Alzheimer’s, a disease known for causing the build-up of cellular “tangles” and brain plaque that results in the degeneration of the neurons and cerebral tissue. The study in question looked at mice, and found that the terpene reversed a number of the cognitive and behavioral impairments associated with Alzheimer’s. It also reduced the number of cellular tangles and brain plaques that are commonly part of the condition.

Williston Daily Herald
Hold up on hemp hype | Local News Stories
There are three types of hemp, depending on what the grower would like to harvest. There’s a taller plant type for fiber, a shorter plant type for seeds, and there’s a middle size for harvesting both.

Marijuana Moment
Sara Walling, an administrator at the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection, oversees the department where the state’s hemp program resides. She said the application period for growing hemp in the 2019 season yielded 1,461 grower applications and 711 processor applications under the state’s research program.

Chris Bennett
February 25, 2019 06:47 AM

How to Grow Hemp for CBD, Seed or Fiber

CO2 reaches its supercritical point above a temperature and pressure around 32°C and 1070 psi. The higher the pressure, the more efficiently the CO2 pulls the soluble chemicals out of the plant. But too high, and the extract acquires undesirable qualities. Soma’s extractor keeps the CO2 at temperatures not exceeding 50°C and pressure up to about 2000 psi. This achieves efficient extraction without imparting a “burned” aroma and flavor to the resulting extract. “You don’t get that caramelization of the product,” Lander says.

Once the supercritical CO2 has collected all the oils, it’s put through into the separator, where the drop in pressure and a bit of heat vaporizes every last droplet of CO2, separating the gas from the valuable oils. “The operator can, at his convenience, just open the valve up and push out a whole bunch of product that looks like soft serve ice cream.”

After the cannabis oil is extracted, it’s “winterized,” meaning the oil is cooled until the heavier fats and waxes solidify. After they are removed, the resulting oil can be sold as-is, with its complex profile of terpenes and cannabinoids, or further refined by distillation or chromatography to obtain pure THC, pure CBD, or some mixture containing a combination of various cannabinoids and terpenes.

San Francisco Chronicle
Marijuana is a lot more than just THC - a pharmacologist looks at the untapped healing compounds
I am a professor in the University of Southern California School of Pharmacy. I have lived in California for a long time and remember the Haight-Ashbury Summer of Love. 

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The Advantages of Traditional Chumash Healing


Chumash healing has been practiced in California for ∼13 000 years. Chumash healers treat their patients with prayer, laughter, dreaming, phytotherapy, aromatherapy, healing ceremonies and other techniques. Healing involves first healing the spirit, then healing the body. Chumash people still maintain their unique identity. Chumash Healers still practice the ancient healing arts in California. This lecture is a brief introduction to Chumash Healing.