TNF and CBD






Scott Salisbury The primary role of TNF is in the regulation of immune cells. TNF, being an endogenous pyrogen, is able to induce fever, apoptotic cell death, cachexia, inflammation and to inhibit tumorigenesis and viral replication and respond to sepsis via IL1 & IL6producing cells. Dysregulation of TNF production has been implicated in a variety of human diseases including Alzheimer's disease,[6] cancer,[7] major depression,[8] psoriasis[9] and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).[10] Though controversial, studies of depression and IBD are currently being linked to TNF levels.[11] Recombinant TNF is used as an immunostimulant under the INN tasonermin.

Abstract apoptotic cell death

The process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is generally characterized by distinct morphological characteristics and energy-dependent biochemical mechanisms. Apoptosis is considered a vital component of various processes including normal cell turnover, proper development and functioning of the immune system, hormone-dependent atrophy, embryonic development and chemical-induced cell death. Inappropriate apoptosis (either too little or too much) is a factor in many human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer. The ability to modulate the life or death of a cell is recognized for its immense therapeutic potential. 


Understanding the difference between CBD Isolate and Full Spectrum CBD Powder.

While cannabidiol (CBD) is all the rage at present, it is often hard to understand what you are getting. Furthermore, with so many different CBD products on the market it’s hard to tell which are full spectrum, which are not and which products are made from cannabis or hemp. 

CBD has become quite popular over the last couple of years but despite what you might think, it is only one of over 100 compounds that have been identified in the Cannabis Sativa L plant. Full spectrum CBD powder, unlike CBD isolate products, includes a wide range of cannabinoids present in the cannabis or hemp plant. Depending on the condition and what you are looking to achieve it can provide a greater effect than CBD alone as all the cannabinoids work together in what is known as the entourage effect.

Full spectrum CBD also contains a variety of essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, protein, chlorophyll, terpenes, flavonoids, and fiber. When referring to CBD in the hemp plant, it’s important to understand that Hemp contains a large number of cannabinoids (in trace amounts), but the main compounds are CBD and cannabidiolic acid (CBDa). As CBDa is more abundant in the hemp plant, processors decarboxylate the oil. This process heats the oil and changes CBDa into CBD.

It is important to understand that CBD from Cannabis is only legal in Medical or recreational states, while CBD hemp oil is legal in all 50 states. While it may not be able to treat all conditions it has been known to assist with a variety of medical conditions including anxiety, depression and acute pain.

The Benefits of the Whole Plant
One of the most important studies relating to full spectrum CBD oil took place at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem’s Hadassah School in 2015. It compared the performance of a full spectrum extract with one that contained CBD only. The study concluded that full spectrum was more effective when fighting pain and inflammation.
While CBD only is somewhat effective, the whole plant extract not only provided faster and better relief, the effects also lasted longer. This is why an increasing number of companies in the CBD industry are selling full spectrum CBD powder as a rule.

The aforementioned entourage effect is the main reason behind the efficacy of whole plant extracts. There are over 100 ‘identified’ compounds in the cannabis plant. While most of these compounds have their own therapeutic benefit, they combine synergistically to provide far better efficacy than any single compound, including CBD. Here are a couple of examples of conditions that benefit from the entourage effect:

  • Gastrointestinal Disorders: While THC improves your appetite, adding CBD to the mix can help with issues such as anorexia and nausea.
  • Anxiety Disorders: THC alone can make matters worse, but CBD counteracts the effects of THC to alleviate the symptoms of stress, PTSD, and more.
  • Neurological Disorders: Although THC can help patients with Tourette’s, the addition of several other cannabinoids can ease the symptoms of Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and more.

While full-spectrum CBD powder contains a huge array of cannabinoids, terpenes and other beneficial compounds; isolates containing only CBD are separated from these other compounds thus limiting their effectiveness. There is a school of thought that CBD is more effective by itself but the 2015 Israeli study has debunked that notion.

What Does Full Spectrum CBD Powder Contain?

Cannabinoids
While most readers are probably aware of the impact of THC and CBD on their health, there are many unheralded beneficial cannabinoids.

Cannabigerol (CBG)
Also known as the ‘stem cell’ cannabinoid, most CBG is transformed into cannabinoids such as CBD and THC by the plant. As a result, most processed plants have a low level of CBG.

Cannabinol (CBN)
The degradation of THC leads to CBN. While there is usually a low amount of it in the fresh plant, the decarboxylation process typically raises the level of CBN. It offers a slight psychoactive effect and has a greater affinity for the CB2 receptor compared to the CB1 receptor.

Cannabichromene (CBC)
It is probably the least studied ‘major’ cannabinoid even though it is rather abundant in certain marijuana strains. As such, there isn’t enough data available to suggest it offers the same remarkable benefits as THC and CBD. However, the research that is available suggests that CBC has antidepressant, pain relieving, and anti-anxiety effects.

Lesser known cannabinoids include:
Cannabicyclol (CBL)
Cannabitriol (CBT)
Cannabicitran (CBT)
Cannabifuran (CBF)v

Terpenes
Terpenes are chemicals that give the cannabis plant its unique scent. Even in tiny amounts, terpenes work extremely well with cannabinoids to help heal the body.

Limonene
This stress reliever also helps boost your mood. You can even rely on it to assist with gastric flux issues.

Pinene
It could potentially improve your memory and boost alertness. It is also anti-inflammatory.

Linalool
This has a sedative effect and works to help patients with depression, insomnia, and stress.

Caryophyllene
This terpene is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory that helps relieve the symptoms of pain. It is also useful against insomnia.

Humulene
This is another pain-relieving terpene which has antibacterial properties and also works as an appetite suppressant.

Vitamins & Minerals
Full spectrum CBD powder contains vitamins A, C, & E along with complex B vitamins such as niacin, riboflavin, and thiamine. An increasing number of people don’t consume beta-carotene, but it is abundant in full spectrum oil. Crucial minerals contained in this powder include zinc, potassium, iron, calcium, and phosphorus.

Essential Fats & Protein
If all of the above wasn’t enough, full spectrum CBD powder contains up to 20 amino acids including the nine essential ones. Essential fatty acids such as Omega 3 and Omega 6, which help promote better heart health, are included in the optimal 3:1 ratio. Hemp oil is even a good source of protein which helps repair and build tissues.

Final Thoughts on Full Spectrum CBD Powder
Although it is better to consume CBD isolate than nothing at all, it may not offer you the same range of positive effects as full spectrum CBD powder. You still receive an adequate amount of CBD, but you also consume dozens of beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes. As a result, your body will receive more than enough vitamins, minerals, and nutrients. Not only will full spectrum CBD powder relieve pain, reduce stress and help you sleep, but it can also keep your body strong, fit and healthy. 

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A full cannabinoid profile or 'full spectrum extract' is an extraction of all the plant's cannabinoids and terpenes together.

From an energetic/chemical perspective, CBD is just one part of the whole cannabinoid spectrum. 
This spectrum is where the plant holds its synergy with the endocannabinoid system within the body.
 More and more research is supporting this and will continue to support this (Also known as the entourage effect). 
Any modifications to the natural spectrum of cannabinoids will degrade the synergy that nature intended the plant to have. 

CBD, flavonoids, and terpenes together - Full Spectrum Also Known as the Entourage effect. 
full spectrum CBD


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Cannabidiol (CBD) has been the focus of many medical cannabis studies, and continues to prove itself as a powerful anti-inflammatory drug. What makes CBD even more desirable for some patients is that it does not cause the psychoactive effects associated with tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

An extremely interesting study (Overcoming the Bell-Shaped Dose-Response of Cannabidiol by using Cannabis Extract Enriched in Cannabidiol) was just published out of the Lautenberg Center for General and Tumor Immunology in Jerusalem. The study examines the effectiveness of administering isolated cannabinoid extracts (a CBD-only formula) versus whole plant extracts (which contain the full range of the plant’s cannabinoid content).

Cannabis Testing at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel (source)

Cannabis Testing at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel (source)

The Hadassah Medical School at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem sought to compare the effectiveness of a completely purified CBD extract versus a full-spectrum extract of cannabis flowers containing large quantities of CBD. The conclusion of the study was that the whole plant extract, which contained a large percentage of CBD but also contained traces of the other cannabinoids, proved far more effective than CBD-only solutions in alleviating inflammation and pain sensation. The study demonstrated that a whole plant extract, containing the entire range of cannabinoids present in raw cannabis, will continue to provide relief for inflammation as the dose is increased. When supplied as an isolated cannabinoid extract, CBD on its own yielded a bell-curve of effectiveness, which is not desirable for medical treatments seeking effective relief that corresponds with the dosage.

Materials Used: Plants, Animals, and Extracts

The purified CBD was acquired from THC Pharm. GmbH (Frankfurt, Germany) to act as the pharmaceutical grade isolated extract. For the whole plant extract, flowers from the clone 202 (proprietary strain: Avidekel) were supplied by the government-approved growers Tikun Olam Company. Bred to be rich in CBD, the raw flowers of this whole plant extract were ground up and cannabinoids were extracted using the solvent ethanol. The pure CBD extract and the full-spectrum extract were formulated for both injection and oral administration. The tests were performed on ethically-approved lab mice from Hadassah Medical School. In addition to a control group, the commercial drugs aspirin and tramadol were used on separate sets of mice to further compare the effectiveness of synthetic isolations versus whole plant extracts. The study was represented by 10-12 mice per treatment group, using known laboratory methods for measuring reductions in inflammation and pain sensation (described at length in the study). The results clearly show the medical benefit of extracting all the different compounds from the entirety of the raw cannabis flower, rather than extraction of a single cannabinoid.

 

Cannabis Testing on Mice (AP Photo/Robert F. Bukaty)

Cannabis Testing on Mice (AP Photo/Robert F. Bukaty)

Results Of CBD vs. Full-Spectrum on Inflammation and Pain

The data graphs below compare isolated cannabidiol (CBD) against a full-spectrum cannabis extract (from a CBD-rich strain). In all of the tests, the isolated CBD was ineffective both before and after a certain dosage, while the effectiveness of the full-spectrum solution continued to increase as higher doses were administered. The results all indicate that CBD is only effective against swelling and pain at a certain dose, and that cannabis solutions containing a full range of cannabinoids will continue to provide corresponding effects as the dosage is increased.

Injections: The isolated CBD injection was moderately effective at 5 mg/kg, but became less effective when the dose was higher. The shape of the graph resembles a bell-curve, indicating that the CBD-only formula lost effectiveness after a certain dose. The results from the cannabis flower extract showed that the synergy between the cannabinoids yielded greater relief as the dosage was increased, which is desirable in medicine.

Injections of CBD and clone 202 extract (mg/kg)

Injections of CBD and Clone 202 (Full-Spectrum) Extract (mg/kg) (source)


Oral Consumption: When the CBD and the full-spectrum extract where administered orally, the results were extremely similar to the injection test. Graph (c) shows CBD peaking at 25 mg/kg, and then losing any additional efficacy as the dose was increased. The whole plant extract provided more relief for inflammation and pain sensation as the dose was increased. It is important for the effects of the medication to reflect the dosage, as every patient is different and will require unique treatment based on aspects like tolerance.

CBD and Clone 202 Extract Administered Orally

CBD and Clone 202 (Full-Spectrum) Extract Administered Orally (source)


Measuring Levels of TNFα: Production of TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) in the body leads to swelling from fluid accumulation in body tissues. The figure below represents the effectiveness of CBD and whole plant extract in suppressing TNFα production and reducing swelling. CBD proved effective only at a specific dose (25 mg/kg), while again the full-spectrum extract (concentrated from CBD-rich flowers) continued to suppress TNFα production to extremely low levels as dosage was increased.

Reduction in TNFα

Reduction in Levels of TNFα (source)


Comparing Cannabis and Commercial Drugs: The final graph shows the results of purified CBD and the full-spectrum extract when compared to the commercial drugs aspirin and tramadol. Aspirin had a moderate effect on tissue swelling, while tramadol had barely any effect. Both of the cannabis medicines prevented the swelling of the paw to a greater extent than either of the commercial drugs (a). Both of the commercial drugs did more for direct pain sensation (b), but CBD and the full-spectrum extract produced remarkable suppression of TNFα, while the commercial drugs did very little (c). Therefore, cannabis has medical properties not found in common inflammation drugs.

Comparing Commercial Drugs with CBD and Whole Plant Cannabis Extracts (source)

Comparing Commercial Drugs with CBD and Whole Plant Cannabis Extracts (source)


Conclusion: Cannabinoid Synergy More Effective Against Swelling

Cannabis studies continue to legitimize the medical relevance of the different cannabinoids. However, this study shows the importance of treating ailments using the full range of cannabinoids available. Gallily, Yekhtim, and Hanus, the authors of this study from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, conclude that cannabis extracts, specifically cannabidiol, can be more effective for anti-inflammation treatment than the familiar commercial drugs on pharmacy shelves.

Cannabis Flowers Contain a Variety of Cannabinoids (source)

Cannabis Flowers Contain a Variety of Cannabinoids that Work Together (source)

This study is important because it confirms the importance of cannabis as both medication and a natural plant. Many pharmaceutical companies have been trying to create synthetic derivatives of the different cannabinoids, but it turns out that the entirety of the raw cannabis plant is more beneficial than a single isolated cannabinoid. The results of this study are extremely promising for the future of cannabis science and medicine.

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